PD Dr. Florian Schulz

Diplom-Soziologe, Senior Researcher

wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

Tel.: +49 (0)951/96525 - 25

E-Mail: florian.schulz@ifb.uni-bamberg.de

Ma Schulz

Biografische Notiz | Short vita

Diplom und Promotion im Fach Soziologie an der Universität Bamberg. Seit 2015 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am ifb. Seit 2019 Geschäftsführer des Journal of Family Research, seit 2020 zudem Mitherausgeber dieser Zeitschrift. Privatdozent an der Universität Bamberg.

Diploma (M. A. equivalent) and Ph. D. in sociology at the University of Bamberg. Since 2015 senior researcher at the ifb. Since 2019 managing director of the Journal of Family Research, since 2020 co-editor of this journal. Private lecturer at the University of Bamberg.

Forschungsprofil | Research profile

In seiner Forschung befasst sich Florian Schulz vor allem der Analyse sozialer Strukturen und sozialer Ungleichheiten in Deutschland und im internationalen Vergleich. Im Zentrum seines Interesses steht die Frage, wie individuelle Chancen, Lebensverläufe und soziale Ungleichheitsmuster innerhalb spezifischer Kontexte produziert und reproduziert werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund widmet sich die empirische Forschung von Florian Schulz den Strukturen, dem Wandel und den normativen Rahmenbedingungen des Familien- und Arbeitslebens, sowie des Zusammenspiels von Familie und Arbeit. In aktuellen Forschungsprojekten untersucht er beispielsweise die Zeitverwendung von Kindern, die Aufteilung von bezahlter und unbezahlter Arbeit in frühen und späteren Phasen des Lebenslaufes und den möglichen Zusammenhang von Konflikten zwischen Arbeitswelt und Familienleben und dem Wohlbefinden von Frauen, Männern und Kindern.

Florian Schulz is doing research on social structures and social inequalities in Germany and in international comparison. He focuses on the question how individual opportunities, life courses and patterns of social inequality are produced and reproduces within specific contexts. His current empirical research tackles demographics, structures, change, and normative settings of family, work, and the intersection of family and work. Current research topics include time use in childhood, the division of paid and unpaid work in earlier and later phases of the life course as well as the possible connection of work-family conflict and well-being of women, men and children.

Ausgewählte Veröffentlichungen | Selected publications

Steinbach, Anja & Florian Schulz (2021): Stability and change in German parents’ childcare patterns across two decades. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, doi:10.1093/sp/jxab017. (replication files)

Although German mothers’ labor force participation has increased in recent decades, German men’s participation in domestic labor has not increased proportionally. Thus, mothers still face a “double burden.” We analyzed the total time parents spent on childcare and on various particular activities, such as learning with children, playing with children, basic childcare, talking with children, managing children’s activities, and reading with children. We identified a very slow gender convergence in childcare patterns in Germany over the last two decades. However, as in other Western countries, German parents’ division of childcare remains unequal; mothers do much more routine care and spend more time overall on care than fathers.

Schulz, Florian (2021): Mothers', Fathers' and Siblings' Housework Time Within Family Households. Journal of Marriage and Family, 83, 803-819, doi:10.1111/jomf.12762. (replication files)

Objective: To investigate time use of housework for all members of family households, especially focusing on how time allocation varied by siblings' gender composition. Background: Three knowledge gaps were addressed: the allocation of housework time between all family members; children's contributions to housework, focusing on the relevance of sibling structure; and the differences in time allocation of housework by parental education within family households. The study contributes to the understanding of the family as the primary socialization environment and the foundations of gender inequality of unpaid work time in the life course and in society. Methods: 478 four?person households were sampled from the German Time Use Study from 2001/2002 and 2012/2013. Using information from 3,743 time diaries, absolute and relative time use for total housework on Mondays through Fridays was analyzed according to siblings' gender composition, applying linear regression. Results: Mothers and daughters spent more time on housework in shared family households than fathers and sons. Total housework time was lowest in households with two sons and highest in households with two daughters. Older daughters spent more time on housework than younger daughters, and sons with a sister spent more time on housework than sons with a brother, regardless of the birth order. Parents' education had no impact on the time allocation in this sample. Conclusion: Children's gender plays a role in their interaction with their parents, and both gender identity at the individual level and the dyadic gender compositions of families must be considered when explaining the household allocation of housework.

Schulz, Florian (2021): Attitudes towards sharing housework in couple context: An empirical, factorial survey approach. Journal of Family Research, 33, 149-185, doi:10.20377/jfr-419. (replication files)

Objective: This study measured and compared the attitudes of German women and men towards sharing total housework, routine housework and non-routine housework in couples. Background: Although attitudes towards gender roles and the notion of separate spheres are important for understanding many aspects of family life, knowledge about situational variations of women’s and men’s attitudes towards housework sharing is limited. Method: Original data from a factorial survey of 1,120 German women and men from 2016 were used to describe variations in the attitudes of women and men towards three sets of housework using multilevel regression models. Results: Women and men expressed their attitudes towards equal sharing of total and routine housework, but non-routine housework was assigned to male partners in couples. Attitudes differed widely according to the context of the couple: In couples with similar economic resources, respondents favored equal sharing of housework, and in couples with unequal arrangements, the partner with fewer resources was tied to more housework and vice versa. Conclusion: When evaluating housework responsibilities, women and men in this study seemed to follow the principles of equity and balanced exchange.

Friedrich, Carmen, Henriette Engelhardt & Florian Schulz (2020): Women's agency in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia: The role of parenthood and education. Population Research and Policy Review, doi:10.1007/s11113-020-09622-7. (replication files)

Women in Middle Eastern and North African countries continue to report low levels of agency, despite their increasing educational attainment and declining fertility rates. We address this paradox by considering how women’s agency is linked to parenthood in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia and how this association is moderated by their level of education. We study three dimensions of instrumental agency: involvement in decision-making, financial autonomy, and freedom of movement using data for married women aged 18–49 from the Integrated Labor Market Panel Surveys: Egypt 2012 (n = 7622), Jordan 2016 (n = 4550), Tunisia 2014 (n = 1480). Results from multivariate regression models of these different dimensions demonstrate that married women who are mothers generally exhibit higher levels of agency than their counterparts who are childless, though this does not hold for every dimension and the strength of the association between parenthood and agency differs by dimension and country. We find a notable exception to this pattern of positive association in the Egyptian sample: parenthood decreases agency among Egyptian women with post-secondary education. Our results suggest that parenthood may only increase women’s agency in settings with deeply entrenched patriarchal norms that imply little education for women.

Leopold, Thomas & Florian Schulz (2020): Health and housework in later life: A longitudinal study of retired couples. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 75, 184-194, doi:10.1093/geronb/gby015. (replictation files)

Objectives: To examine how changes in wives’ and husbands’ health influenced housework time and domestic outsourcing in retired couples. Method: We estimated fixed-effects models to test hypotheses about the gendered influence of health declines on absolute and relative measures of time spent on routine and nonroutine housework as well as the probability of outsourcing housework. The data were obtained from 23 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, comprising N = 25,119 annual observations of N = 3,889 retired couples aged 60–85 years. Results: Wives’ and husbands’ housework time declined with health status, but these effects were large only for serious health problems. We found evidence for within-couple compensation of spouses’ health declines, a mechanism that was limited to indispensable tasks of routine housework. The probability of getting paid help from outside the household increased with declining health, and this increase was more strongly tied to wives’ health declines than to husbands’ health declines. Discussion: The results demonstrate the relevance of health status for the performance of housework in retired couples. The evidence attests to the resilience of couples during later-life stages in which health issues may severely inhibit domestic productivity.

Schulz, Florian (2020): Trends in children's gendered housework performance. Time use evidence from Germany, 1991-2013. Child Indicators Research, 13, 1313-1334, doi:10.1007/s12187-019-09702-x. (shared link | replication files)

Like their parents, children are productive members of their households and may contribute to housework. This study is the first to examine trends in children’s housework behavior in Germany. Using data from the German Time Use Study, 12–17-year-old boys’ and girls’ participation in and time use for housework activities are tracked between 1991 and 2013. The analytical focus is on the relation between the time spent on housework by parents and children and its development over time. It is shown that there is no change in children’s overall participation in housework, but that girls and boys spent fewer days on housework in 2012/2013 than 20 years ago. Furthermore, children’s average time spent on housework decreased in the observed timeframe, but remained constant on days on which children actually do housework. Moreover, children’s time use is positively related to parents’ time use, especially for same-sex parent-child-dyads. In conclusion, trends in children’s time use resemble developments in parental housework behavior, especially concerning the decline of total housework time and gender convergence.

Leopold, Thomas, Jan Skopek & Florian Schulz (2018): Gender convergence in housework time: A life course and cohort perspective. Sociological Science, 5, 281-303, doi:10.15195/v5.a13. (replication files)

Knowledge about gender convergence in housework time is confined to changes studied across repeated cross-sections of data. This study adds a dynamic view that links broader social shifts in men’s and women’s housework time to individual life-course profiles. Using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1985–2015), our analysis is the first to trace changes in housework time across the entire adult life course (ages 20–90) and across a large range of cohorts (1920–1990). The results revealed two types of gender convergence in housework time. First, the gender gap converged across the life course, narrowing by more than 50 percent from age 35 until age 70. Life-course profiles of housework time were strongly gendered, as women’s housework time peaked in younger adulthood and declined thereafter, whereas men’s housework time remained stably low for decades and increased only in older age. Second, the gender gap converged across cohorts, narrowing by 40 percent from cohorts 1940 until 1960. Cohort profiles of housework time showed strong declines in women and moderate increases in men. Both cohort trends were linear and extended to the most recently born, supporting the notion of continued convergence in housework time.

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